Heroes, Inc. Presents Cannon is a two-issue comic book series that represents one of the earliest independent comics. The first issue was self-published by prominent writer-artist Wally Wood in 1969, with a second issue published by CPL Gang Publications in 1976.
This comic-book series is unrelated to the organization HEROES, Inc. (“Honor Every Responsible Officer’s Eternal Sacrifice”), a Washington, D.C. aid group for families of police and firefighters killed in the line of duty.

Writer-artist Wally Wood, who by 1969 had had a critically admired two decades in comic books, self-published the first issue of his mature-audience comic Heroes, Inc. Presents Cannon that year, after having already self-published a similar anthology, witzend. These comics, along with such titles by other publishers as Star Reach (1974), Big Apple Comix (1975), and American Splendor (1976), helped bridge the gap between the countercultural underground comics and traditional mainstream fare, providing genre stories for an adult audience. Like those other examples, it was a forerunner of the late-1970s rise of the modern graphic novel and the 1980s independent-comic publishing boom.
Created for the military readership Wood had cultivated with his “Sally Forth” feature in Military News and Overseas Weekly, the first issue contained no U.S. Postal Service indicia. The only publishing information was on an editorial page that gave the office address as “Armed Forces Dist., P.O

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. Box 23635, Pleasant Hill cheap clothes online 2016, Calif.” Not targeted at children and carrying no Comics Code seal, it contained more action/combat violence and more revealing clothing on nubile young women than did mainstream comics, though it did not contain nudity or gore; most deaths occurred in silhouette, off-panel or indeterminately within battle scenes. The glossy cover promoted “Amazing Adult Adventure”.
In October 2005, Heritage Auctions auctioned off a lot containing approximately 70,000 copies of the issue.
The 32-page, color comic book featured three stories with original characters. Priced at 15 cents when a typical comic book cost 12 cents, it bore no issue number. The cover was signed “Wally Wood 1969”. The inside front cover bore a full-page ad for Mesa Hills home sites, P.O. Box 788m Santa Fe, New Mexico. A full-page ad following the first story advertised National Diamond Sales, 437 12th Street, Oakland, California. The following page contained two stacked, half-page public-service ads, one for the U.S.O., the other for U.S. Savings Bonds. A Military Diamond Sales ad after the second story gave the same address as the editorial office. Following the stories came a full-page ad for U.S. Diamond Sales, 1128 Broadway, Oakland, California. The inside back cover contained the text piece “Salute to a Medal of Honor Winner”, with a black-and-white photo of U.S. Marine Corps Corporal Robert E. O’Malley. The back cover was yet another diamond-company ad, for Armed Forces Diamond Sales, 1126 Broadway, Oakland, California.
The 12-page “Cannon”, written and inked by Wood, penciled by Steve Ditko and credited as “Wally Wood 1969” and “Art by Ditko and Wood”, was an espionage adventure starring the titular C.I.A. agent, who has been brainwashed so deeply during capture by cold war Communists that, when recovered by the United States military, scientists “go all the way” and continue brainwashing him as a covert assassin for the U.S. He is assigned to rescue or assassinate Jean Voss, a nubile young member of an American anti-missile defense lab, who was kidnapped by Asian, presumably Red Chinese, Communists with a base on the Yucatán Peninsula.
“Cannon” went on to be published in serial form, in the U.S. Army’s Overseas Weekly, starting in 1971.
“The Misfits”, a 10-page story written and penciled by Wood, inked by Ralph Reese and credited “W. Wood and R. Reese” and “Copyright Wally Wood 1969”, follows Mystra, a nubile young artificial human with telepathic abilities; Shag, a boyish blue extraterrestrial stranded on Earth; and Glomb, a human infant mutated by American scientists into a gray, simpleminded giant created to explore the planet Jupiter. Captives of the government’s “Operation Misfit”, they escape, only to confront an albino alien invader.
Reflecting less-enlightened times, page two of “The Misfits” includes this dialog from English-speaking officials at the scene of a spaceship landing:
The five-page “Dragonella” credited “Script by Ron Whyte and W. Wood”, with art by Wood, and noted “Copyright Wally Wood 1969”, is a humorous adventure of a fairy-tale baby abandoned in the woods and raised into nubile young womanhood by kindly dragons “of the ancient and noble family Isaurus”. Named Dragonella, she eventually ventures forth seeking a prince to marry, accompanied by her dragon “brother”, St. George.
Before the final story is a letter-from-the-editor page, hand-lettered on a montage of Wood art and signed “Sincerely, Wallace Wood”.
Published in 1976 by CPL Gang Publications—which published the fanzines CPL (Contemporary Pictorial Literature) and Charlton Bullseye before its various editors and artists, including Roger Slifer and Roger Stern, turned professional—this magazine-sized second issue carried a $2 cover price.
It contains an untitled, seven-page “The Misfits” story written and drawn by Wood; the superhero feature “The Black Angel”, with the seven-page story “Beware the Sirens (Table of Contents) by co-writers Mike Vosburg and Roger Stern, drawn by Vosburg; and an untitled, 14-page “Cannon” story, written and inked by Wood and drawn by Ditko.
In addition, the inside front cover contained a full-page Wood illustration of the character Dynamo, from Tower Comics’ T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents; a two-page centerspread illustration of the original character Kadavahr the Resurrected, by John Byrne, plus an additional page of Byrne art; and a back-cover illustration by Wood of the original character Animan

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The covers for both issues were colored by Marie Severin.

I poriferi o spugne (Porifera Grant, 1836), dal latino portatori di pori, sono un phylum animale. Si tratta di organismi pluricellulari, aventi corpi ricchi di pori e canali che permettono all’acqua di circolare attraverso essi; sono fondamentalmente costituiti da un sacco, o spongocele, strutturato come un composto gelatinoso o mesoglea collocato tra due strati sottili di cellule, il coanoderma, interno e il pinacoderma, esterno. Le cellule non differenziate nella mesoglia, o archeoblasti, in grado di trasformarsi ad assumere funzioni specializzate, possono migrare tra gli strati di cellule principali e la mesoglia. Posseggono una struttura scheletrica, l’endoscheletro, formato da spicole calcaree o silicee, o costituite da fibre proteiche di spongina, prodotto da cellule specializzate. Le spugne non hanno apparati o organi differenziati; la maggior parte delle funzioni si basano sul mantenimento di un flusso costante di acqua attraverso i loro corpi per ottenere cibo e ossigeno e rimuovere i prodotti catabolici.

Le spugne sono, come gli altri metazoi, pluricellulari, eterotrofe, non possiedono parete cellulare e producono spermatozoi e ovocellule. A differenza di altri animali, non hanno veri tessuti e organi, e, generalmente, non hanno simmetria somatica. Le forme dei loro corpi sono adattate per la massima efficienza del flusso di acqua attraverso la cavità centrale, dove deposita nutrienti, ed esce attraverso un foro chiamato osculum. Gli scheletri interni sono di spongina e / o formati da spicole di carbonato di calcio o silice. Tutte le spugne sono animali acquatici, in maggioranza marini e sessili; vi sono anche specie d’acqua dolce, e colonizzano ambienti che vanno dalle zone di marea alle profondità superiori a 8000 m.
I tassonomi collocano le spugne in uno dei quattro sottoregni animali, quello dei Parazoi. Analisi molecolari dal 2001 hanno concluso che alcuni gruppi di spugne sono più strettamente imparentati con gli eumetazoi (la stragrande maggioranza degli organismi animali) rispetto al resto dei poriferi. Tali conclusioni implicano che le spugne non sono un gruppo monofiletico, poiché l’ultimo antenato comune di tutte le spugne sarebbe anche un antenato diretto degli eumetazoi, che non sono spugne. Uno studio condotto sulla base di confronti di DNA ribosomale ha concluso che la divisione più importante all’interno del phylum è tra spugne vitree o hyalospongiae e il resto del gruppo, e che gli eumetazoi sono più strettamente correlati alle spugne calcaree, quelle con spicole di carbonato di calcio, rispetto ad altri tipi di spugna. Nel 2007 una analisi basata sul confronto di RNA e un’altra basata principalmente sul confronto di spicole ha concluso che demosponge e spugne di vetro sono più strettamente correlate tra loro che non altre classi, come le spugne calcaree, che a loro volta sono più strettamente legate agli eumetazoi.
Queste ed altre analisi, hanno stabilito che le spugne sono i più vicini parenti degli antenati comuni a tutti metazoi, ovvero tutti gli animali multicellulari. Un altro confronto nel 2008 di 150 geni in ciascuna di 21 specie che vanno dai funghi all’uomo, ma includente unicamente due specie di spugna, ha suggerito che gli ctenofori siano il lignaggio più basale dei metazoi inclusi nel campione. Se questo è corretto, i moderni ctenofori hanno sviluppato le loro strutture complesse indipendentemente da altri metazoi, o gli antenati delle spugne “erano più complessi” e tutte le spugne conosciute si sono drasticamente semplificate nelle forme. Lo studio raccomanda ulteriori analisi utilizzando una gamma più ampia di spugne e altri metazoi semplici come i placozoi. I risultati di tale analisi, pubblicata nel 2009, suggeriscono che il ritorno alla visualizzazione precedente, con le spugne alla base dell’albero evolutivo, possa essere giustificata. un dendrogramma costruito utilizzando una combinazione di tutti i dati disponibili, morfologici, di sviluppo e molecolari ha concluso che le spugne sono in realtà un gruppo monofiletico, con i cnidari formati il gruppo gemello ai bilateri.
Si era ipotizzata, nel XX secolo, una loro origine filogeneticamente indipendente dagli altri phylum animali, secondo cui i poriferi si sarebbero evoluti da ceppi ancestrali di organismi unicellulari dotati di flagello (protozoi coanoflagellati) aggregatisi in colonie.
Le prime testimonianze fossili della esistenza dei Poriferi risalgono a circa 570 milioni di anni fa (fine del Precambriano): i reperti di quel periodo, la cosiddetta piccola fauna dura (dall’inglese small shelly fauna), sono costituiti in gran parte da ammassi di spicole di poriferi, assieme frammenti o resti disarticolati di altri organismi quali molluschi, brachiopodi, echinodermi. Fossili di Protospongia sp., un porifero con struttura simile a quella degli attuali Hexactinellida, risalenti al Cambriano inferiore (circa 540 milioni di anni fa) sono stati rinvenuti nell’argillite di Burgess, in Canada, mentre i primi fossili di Demospongiae (Hazelia sp.), risalenti a circa 525 milioni di anni fa Christian Louboutin Outlet Australia, sono stati ritrovati nei giacimenti fossili del Chengjiang (Cina).
Il Phylum Porifera viene generalmente suddiviso in 4 classi che differiscono per la composizione dell’endoscheletro:
Classe Calcispongiae o Calcarea (Calcispongie o Spugne calcaree)
Classe Hyalospongiae o Hexactinellida (Ialospongie o Esattinellidi o Spugne vitree)
Classe Demospongiae (Demospongie o Spugne silicee)
Classe Sclerospongiae (Sclerospongie o Spugne coralline)
I Poriferi o spugne sono animali sessili, cioè vivono attaccati sulle rocce dei fondali marini o sugli scogli. Essi formano il gruppo degli animali più primitivi e presentano una scarsa specializzazione cellulare. Il loro corpo, dalle forme più varie, è formato da tre strati: lo strato esterno funge da rivestimento ed è costituito da cellule appiattite dette pinacociti, quello intermedio contiene delle strutture di sostegno, dette spicole e infine quello interno delimita una cavità ed è formato da cellule dette coanociti. La struttura base delle spugne è un sacco, chiamato spongocele, con un’apertura principale, l’osculo, e numerosi pori nella parete. La parete è formata da due strati cellulari: il coanoderma e il pinacoderma.
Tra il coanoderma e il pinacoderma è presente uno strato acellulare gelatinoso, il mesoilo o mesoglia, in cui si trovano diversi elementi cellulari, detti archeoblasti, che a secondo delle necessità possono trasformarsi in:
Quasi tutte le spugne posseggono una struttura scheletrica, l’endoscheletro, formato da spicole calcaree o silicee, o fibre proteiche (spongina) prodotte rispettivamente dagli scleroblasti (o sclerociti) e dagli spongoblasti, o (spongociti). Le spugne silicee hanno generalmente due tipi di spicole: le megasclere e le microsclere. Le megasclere misurano oltre 100 µm e partecipano alla funzione di sostegno dei tessuti. Le microsclere sono di piccola taglia (1 à 100 µm) e non svolgono il ruolo di struttura scheletrica. Le spicole silicee costituiscono delle vere e proprie fibre ottiche naturali, il che fa ipotizzare un ruolo di queste strutture nel successo evolutivo delle spugne silicee rispetto a quelle calcaree.
La respirazione avviene attraverso le cellule, il ricambio continuo di acqua permette una continua ossigenazione dell’ambiente detta “respirazione cutanea”.
Mancano di un sistema nervoso.
Tutti i tipi cellulari dei Poriferi derivano da un unico gruppo di cellule ameboidi indifferenziate e totipotenti, gli archeociti.
__ pinacociti
__ coanociti
In base alla loro struttura macroscopica le spugne possono presentarsi con tre differenti morfologie:
I Poriferi sono animali bentonici.
Sono filtratori e si nutrono di piccoli organismi e particelle organiche che fluttuano sospese nell’acqua. Il sistema di filtraggio è possibile grazie all’azione dei coanociti, cellule flagellate che, muovendosi ripetutamente, creano una corrente di risucchio che permette all’acqua di attraversare i pori, entrare nelle cavità della spugna e, in seguito, fuoriuscire dall’osculo. I coanociti sono muniti di un collaretto, estensione citoplasmatica composta da microvilli, che circonda il flagello ed imprigiona l’alimento. Le particelle catturate penetrano nel coanocita per essere trasferite agli amebociti del mesoilo, dove avviene una digestione intracellulare.
È stato dimostrato che non tutte le specie di porifera sono filtratori, ma che al contrario alcune di esse sono carnivore. Si nutrono di crostacei ed altri piccoli animali, e per la maggior parte appartengono alla famiglia delle Cladorhizidae, e, in misura minore se ne trovano anche fra le Guitarridae e le Esperiopsidae Nonostante si conosca ancora poco del meccanismo di cattura, è noto come alcune specie avvicinino e catturino la preda con delle strutture ‘a velcro’ o tramite delle strutture simili ad uncini formate da spicole. La maggior parte di queste specie vive in acque profonde, oltre gli 8800 metri. e lo sviluppo dell’esplorazione dei fondali marini ne sta portando alla luce sempre di nuove.
La maggior parte delle specie carnivore hanno perso il loro sistema acquifero, nonostante alcune specie usino un sistema acquifero modificato per gonfiare delle strutture in grado di fagocitare la preda.
Le spugne sono ermafroditi insufficienti. La loro larva è detta anfiblastula, e possiede un polo di cellule grandi e non flagellate (macromeri) e un altro di cellule piccole e flagellate (micromeri); queste ultime daranno origine ai coanociti ed hanno inizialmente i flagelli rivolti all’interno della cavità; successivamente l’intera struttura si rovescia come un dito di guanto in modo da esporre all’esterno i flagelli dei micromeri (modalità di sviluppo simile a quella di alcune microalghe verdi d’acqua dolce come Volvox) e si fissa al substrato, non subendo poi grandi cambiamenti: non vi sono infatti organi veri e propri, e anche la differenziazione in tessuti è rudimentale.
La riproduzione sessuale avviene tramite la trasformazione delle cellule coanociti, in spermi e/o uova. Gli spermi, liberi nell’acqua, verranno catturati da un altro individuo, tramite i coanociti che condurranno lo spermatozoo all’uovo. Questo tipo di riproduzione avviene solamente nel periodo primavera-autunno, a differenza della riproduzione asessuale.
La riproduzione asessuale avviene tramite la formazione di gemme, gemmule e propaguli. Le gemme si formano all’esterno del porifero, esse sono delle vere e proprie spugne in miniatura che staccandosi dalla “spugna madre” formano un nuovo individuo. Le gemmule invece si formano all’interno del porifero, esse sono composte internamente dagli archeociti, ed esternamente da particolari spicole che prendono il nome di anfidischi. La gemmula presenta un’apertura, il micropilo, dal quale fuoriusciranno gli archeociti una volta trovato un ambiente favorevole, che daranno origine ad un nuovo individuo. I propaguli (o larve corazzate) sono molto simili alle gemmule, si differenziano per la presenza di sei/otto/dieci stili e dal rivestimento di placche di natura silicea, denominate discotriene.
Una caratteristica dei Poriferi è la capacità di disgregazione-riaggregazione: se, ad esempio, una spugna viene disgregata con un setaccio si assiste ad una ricostruzione generale dell’organismo da parte degli amebociti. In natura questa capacità permette a questi semplici animali di dividersi in più individui e colonizzare maggiormente il substrato.
Il phylum Porifera è composto quasi esclusivamente da specie acquatiche filtratrici, bentoniche e sessili (vivono ancorate al substrato), in prevalenza marine, diffuse in tutti i fondali, dai tropici ai poli, fino a profondità abissali. Le spugne d’acqua dolce, rappresentate dalla famiglia Spongillidae (Demospongie), abitano i fiumi ed i laghi di tutti i continenti (escluso l’Antartide).
I Poriferi possono avere vita solitaria o costituire dense colonie che, come accade con le madrepore, diventano importanti habitat per comunità animali e vegetali. Infatti, le loro cavità possono ospitare numerosi organismi simbionti (come piccoli crostacei, alghe unicellulari, cianobatteri, funghi.) In alcuni casi questi microorganismi possono costituire sino al 40% del volume della spugna e possono contribuire in maniera significativa al metabolismo dell’ospite, contribuendo, per esempio, alla fotosintesi o alla fissazione dell’azoto.
Una curiosa associazione mutualistica è quella che si instaura tra alcune specie di paguro e la spugna Suberites domuncula, che si accresce sulla conchiglia di gasteropode utilizzata come protezione dal paguro; in questo modo la spugna trae vantaggio ottenendo mobilità dal crostaceo ed evitando così di riempirsi di sedimento, mentre il paguro evita di essere predato grazie allo sgradevole gusto e odore del porifero. Inoltre la Suberites domuncula si accresce attorno al nicchio ed al paguro consentendogli di vivere tutta la vita all’interno della stessa conchiglia, evitando così di esporre l’addome molle ai predatori durante il cambio di conchiglia, inevitabile per chi non si avvale di tale mutualismo. I Crostacei del genere Spongicola vivono come commensali all’interno di Ialospongie ma, una volta cresciuti, rimangono intrappolati nella cavità della spugna che, in genere, ne ospita una coppia, costretta così a rimanere “fedele” per tutta la vita.
Le spugne fanno parte della dieta di molti organismi marini (Pesci, Anellidi, Molluschi, Echinodermi, ecc.) The Kooples Jackets. Studi sulla dieta della tartaruga marina Eretmochelys imbricata hanno dimostrato che essa è costituita per il 70-95% da spugne della classe Demospongiae, in particolare da specie appartenenti agli ordini Astrophorida, Spirophorida e Hadromerida.
Altri progetti

L’Alianza Fútbol Club, meglio noto come Alianza, è stata una società calcistica di Montevideo (Uruguay) esistita tra il 2000 e il 2004.
L’Alianza nacque il 25 novembre 2000 dalla fusione del Salus con il Club Atlético Villa Teresa, club militanti fino a quella stagione in Segunda División Profesional. Dato che le due società fondatrici sarebbero state escluse dal successivo campionato di seconda divisione per debiti, la fusione fu omologata dall’AUF, ma l’Alianza dovette attendere il 2002, dopo che i club fondatori, cioè, avessero regolato le proprie situazioni finanziarie, per poter esordire nel campionato uruguaiano. Nel frattempo, anche l’Huracán entrò nella neonata società.
Nel primo campionato disputato, la stagione di Segunda División Profesional 2002, l’Alianza conquistò un benaugurante nono posto nella classifica finale (addirittura il sesto in quella del torneo di Apertura). Meno brillante fu la stagione 2003, quando l’Alianza colse solo il sedicesimo posto.
L’anno successivo giunse però il tracollo: alla decima giornata di campionato, dopo una partenza alquanto faticosa (3 vittorie, 1 pareggio e 5 sconfitte), i calciatori dell’Alianza scioperarono, per il mancato pagamento, da parte del club, di stipendi relativi alle due stagioni precedenti. A causa dell’insolvenza della società, l’Alianza fu esclusa seduta stante dal campionato (analoghi provvedimenti, dovuti a identici motivi, riguardarono la Juventud e il Colón) e, a quel punto, i soci decisero di sciogliere il club definitivamente, riformando le tre società originarie.

A dual economy is the existence of two separate economic sectors within one country, divided by different levels of development, technology, and different patterns of demand. The concept was originally created by Julius Herman Boeke to describe the coexistence of modern and traditional economic sectors in a colonial economy.
Dual economies are common in less developed countries, where one sector is geared to local needs and another to the global export market. Dual economies may exist within the same sector, for example a modern plantation or other commercial agricultural entity operating in the midst of traditional cropping systems. Sir Arthur Lewis used the concept of a dualistic economy as the basis of his labour supply theory of rural-urban migration. Lewis distinguished between a rural low-income subsistence sector with surplus population, and an expanding urban capitalist sector (see Dual-sector model). The urban economy absorbed labour from rural areas (holding down urban wages) until the rural surplus was exhausted.
A World Bank comparison of sectoral growth in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Zimbabwe since 1965 provided evidence against the existence of a basic dual economy model. The research implied that a positive link existed between growth in industry and growth in agriculture. The authors argued that for maximum economic growth, policymakers should have focused on agriculture and services as well as industrial development.

Wood Lane ist eine oberirdische Station der London Underground im Stadtbezirk London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Sie ist Teil des Stadtentwicklungsprojekts Westfield London an der Strecke der Hammersmith & City Line und liegt an der Wood Lane, in der Nähe des BBC Television Centre. Im Jahr 2013 nutzten 3,44 Millionen Fahrgäste die Station.

Eröffnet wurde die Station am 12. Oktober 2008. Sie befindet sich in unmittelbarer Nähe zur Station White City der Central Line auf der gegenüberliegenden Straßenseite. Transport for London gab bekannt, dass es aufgrund der großen Beliebtheit der elektronischen Fahrkarte Oyster Card keine Fahrkartenschalter geben wird. Seit dem 13. Dezember 2009 halten hier auch Züge der Circle Line.
Wenige hundert Meter südlich, ebenfalls an der Strecke der Hammersmith & City Line, befand sich früher eine weitere Station namens Wood Lane. Diese wurde von der Metropolitan Line bedient und musste 1959 nach einem Brand auf dem hölzernen Bahnsteig geschlossen werden.
Das von Ian Ritchie Architects entworfene und vom Bauunternehmen Costain Group errichtete Stationsgebäude entstand auf einem unregelmäßig geformten Grundstück zwischen der Wood Lane und dem U-Bahn-Viadukt. Die Bauarbeiten waren komplex, da das Gebäude außerdem direkt über dem Tunnel der Central Line liegt, und fanden überwiegend nachts statt, um den Bahnbetrieb so wenig wie möglich zu beeinträchtigen. Das Gebäude besitzt eine 25 Meter hohe Glasfassade, die Hülle besteht aus kugelstrahligem rostfreien Stahl, aus mit Gold anodisch oxidiertem Aluminium sowie aus Granit. Die Station umschließt den U-Bahn-Viadukt, der Zugang zu den Bahnsteigen erfolgt über Treppen und Aufzüge beidseits der Ziegelsteinbögen.
51.50982-0.22413Koordinaten: 51° 30′ 35″ N, 0° 13′ 27″ W


Michael Salmon (* 14. Juli 1964 in Leyland, Lancashire) ist ein ehemaliger englischer Fußballtorhüter und Fußballtrainer.
Salmon begann seine Karriere als Ersatztorhüter bei den Blackburn Rovers, wo er in zwei Jahren zu einem einzigen Einsatz kam. 1982 wurde er von den Rovers zu Chester City verliehen um Spielpraxis zu sammeln. Von 1983 bis 1986 war er bei Stockport County unter Vertrag und spielte über 100 Spiele.
Nach weiteren Zwischenstationen bei den Bolton Wanderers und dem AFC Wrexham wechselte er zu Charlton Athletic. Bei den Athletikern blieb er zehn Jahre und absolvierte über 150 Pflichtspiele. Von 1999 bis 2002 ließ Salmon bei Oxford United und Ipswich Town seine Karriere ausklingen.
Nach seinem Karriereende wurde Salom Torwarttrainer der FC Arsenal Reservemannschaft. Von 2002 bis 2004 trainierte er die Torhüter des FC Gillingham. Anschließend war er hauptamtlicher Torwarttrainer der ersten Mannschaft von Arsenal.
2007 wanderte er mit seiner Familie nach Kanada aus und ist seitdem Torwarttrainer bei den Vancouver Whitecaps. Nach dem Wechsel der Whitecaps in die Major League Soccer, wurde er mit in das neue Franchise übernommen.

Foers ist eine britische Automarke.

John Foers gründete 1977 in Rotherham in der Grafschaft South Yorkshire das Unternehmen J. A. Foers Engineering und begann mit der Produktion von Automobilen und Kits. Der Markenname lautet Foers. 1990 übernahm Deltech Engineering bzw. Del Tech Engineering aus Rotherham unter Leitung von Derek Chapman die Produktion von zwei Modellen und stellte sie bis 1997 her. Foers gab die Produktion des letzten verbliebenen Modells von 2004 bis 2006 (nach anderen Quellen von 2000 bis 2005) an Ricardo Engineering aus Shoreham-by-Sea in West Sussex ab, übernahm sie dann aber wieder in seinem neuen Unternehmen Foers Engineering in Ninebanks bei Hexham in Northumberland. Inzwischen ist auch sein Sohn David im Unternehmen tätig. Insgesamt entstanden bisher etwa 296 Exemplare.
Nachstehend eine Übersicht über die Modelle, Zeiträume, ungefähre Produktionszahlen, Hersteller und Kurzbeschreibungen.
Auf der Techno-Classica wurde 2015 ein Foers Ibex als zweitüriger Kombi mit Erstzulassung 2005 für 14.900 Euro angeboten. Sein Dieselmotor leistete aus 2759 cm³ Hubraum 116 PS.
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Reprezentanci Sierra Leone występują na letnich igrzyskach olimpijskich od 1968 roku, zadebiutowali wtedy podczas igrzysk w Meksyku. Ponownie na igrzyskach pojawili się w 1980 w Moskwie i od tamtej pory występują w zawodach nieprzerwanie.
Najliczniejsza reprezentacja Sierra Leone na letnich igrzyskach wystąpiła w 1980 i 1996 (14 osób), a najmniejsza – w 2004 roku (2 osoby).
Organizacją udziału reprezentacji Sierra Leone na igrzyskach zajmuje się National Olympic Committee of Sierra Leone.
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Meksyk 1968 • Moskwa 1980 • Los Angeles 1984 • Seul 1988 • Barcelona 1992 • Atlanta 1996 • Sydney 2000 • Ateny 2004 • Pekin 2008 • Londyn 2012

Als Wolkenburg wird ein historisches Gebäude im Kölner Stadtteil Altstadt-Süd bezeichnet. Der Name geht auf die Gründungsgeschichte des Kölner Männergesangvereines Cäcilia Wolkenburg zurück, der die Restanlage des ehemaligen Klosters am Mauritiussteinweg in der Kölner Innenstadt zu seinem neuen Sitz wählte. Die barocken Gebäude entstanden am Ort einer mittelalterlichen Klosteranlage der Benediktinerinnen von Rolandswerth (heute Nonnenwerth) und wurden 1734 erbaut. Heute ist das Baudenkmal Wolkenburg ein Veranstaltungszentrum.

Der Name des Gesangvereins hat seinen Ursprung in dem 1244 erstmals in den Kölner Schreinsbüchern des Pfarrbezirks St. Peter angeführten Hof Wolkenburg. Das Anwesen lag an der Ecke der ehemaligen Straße „An der Wollküche“ 1 bis 3, sowie der noch heute vorhandenen Straße Cäcilienkloster und wurde dann 1456 neu erbaut. Um 1500 gehörte dieser Hof der Seidmacherin Fygen Lutzenkirchen.
Die Ortslage an St. Cäcilien, sowie der Name des 1873 durch den Architekten Heinrich Nagelschmidt umgebauten oder restaurierten Hofes Wolkenburg, nahmen die Gründer des Gesangvereines zum Anlass sich „ Cäcilia Wolkenburg“ zu nennen. Der alte Hof Wolkenburg war nach den Recherchen des Historikers Hans Vogts seit 1860 das Heim des Kölner Männergesangvereins, der später in das noch erhaltene Restgebäude der ehemaligen Klosteranlagen am Mauritiussteinweg umzog. Das Gebäude der alten Wolkenburg am Cäcilienkloster wurde 1911/12 abgebrochen.
Nach der Säkularisation 1802 gelangte das Gebäude zuerst in privaten, dann städtischen Besitz. 1829 übernahmen es die Alexianerbrüder, bevor sie 1900 nach Lindenthal umzogen. In den folgenden Jahren befand sich darin eine Kunstgewerbeschule und die Rheinische Musikschule. Am 31. Mai 1942 beschädigt, übernahm der Kölner Männer-Gesang-Verein das Haus und stellte es bis 1960 wieder her; 1987 folgte die endgültige Restaurierung. Am 1. Juli 1980 wurde die Wolkenburg in die Kölner Baudenkmalliste aufgenommen.
50.9328650516676.9450331294444Koordinaten: 50° 55′ 58″ N, 6° 56′ 42″ O

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The Great White Fleet was the popular nickname for the United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe from December 16, 1907, to February 22, 1909, by order of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt.
It consisted of 16 battleships divided into two squadrons, along with various escorts. Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American military power and blue-water navy capability. Hoping to enforce treaties and protect overseas holdings, the U.S. Congress appropriated funds to build American sea power. Beginning with just 90 small ships, over one-third of them wooden, the navy quickly grew to include new modern steel fighting vessels. The hulls of these ships were painted a stark white, giving the armada the nickname “Great White Fleet”.

In the twilight of United States President Theodore Roosevelt’s administration, Roosevelt dispatched sixteen U.S. Navy battleships of the Atlantic Fleet on a worldwide voyage of circumnavigation from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909. The hulls were painted white, the Navy’s peacetime color scheme, decorated with gilded scrollwork with a red, white, and blue banner on their bows. These ships would later come to be known as the Great White Fleet.
The purpose of the fleet deployment was multifaceted. Ostensibly, it served as a showpiece of American goodwill as the fleet visited numerous countries and harbors. In this, the voyage was not unprecedented. Naval courtesy calls, many times in conjunction with the birthdays of various monarchs and other foreign celebrations, had become common in the 19th century. They became increasingly important with the rise of nationalism. In 1891, a large French fleet visited Kronstadt, Russia in conjunction with negotiations between the two nations. Although France and Russia had been hostile to each other for at least three decades prior, the significance of the call was not lost on Russia, and Tsar Nicholas II signed a treaty of alliance with France in 1894. As navies grew larger, naval pageants grew longer, more elaborate and more frequent. The United States began participating in these events in 1902 when Roosevelt invited Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to send a squadron for a courtesy call to New York City. Invitations for U.S. Navy ships to participate in fleet celebrations in the United Kingdom, France and Germany followed.
Additionally, the voyage of the Great White Fleet demonstrated both at home and on the world stage that the U.S. had become a major sea power in the years after its triumph in the Spanish–American War, with possessions that included Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. It was not the first flexing of U.S. naval muscle since that war, however; during the Algeciras Conference in 1906, which was convened to settle a diplomatic crisis between France and Germany over the fate of Morocco, Roosevelt had ordered eight battleships to maintain a presence in the Mediterranean Sea. Since Japan had arisen as a major sea power with the 1905 annihilation of the Russian fleet at Tsushima, the deployment of the Great White Fleet was therefore intended, at least in part, to send a message to Tokyo that the American fleet could be deployed anywhere, even from its Atlantic ports, and would be able to defend American interests in the Philippines and the Pacific.
That gesture capitalized on a war scare that had resulted from anti-Japanese riots in San Francisco. Roosevelt saw the deployment of the fleet as one that would take the American public’s mind off an economic depression that had begun in 1907, encourage patriotism, and give the impression that he would teach Japan “a lesson in polite behavior,” as historian Robert A. Hart phrased it. Roosevelt did so on the assurance from financial experts that Japan had been drained from the Russo-Japanese War and would not be ready for another conflict for at least a decade. After the fleet had crossed the Pacific, Japanese statesmen realized that the balance of power in the East had changed since the Root–Takahira Agreement that defined relevant spheres of interest of the United States and Japan.
The voyage also provided an opportunity to improve the sea- and battle-worthiness of the fleet. While earlier capital ship classes such as the Kearsarge, Illinois and Maine were designed primarily for coastal defense, later classes such as the Virginia and Connecticut incorporated lessons learned from the Spanish–American War and were conceived as ships with “the highest practicable speed and the greatest radius of action,” in the words of the appropriation bills approved by the United States Congress for their construction. They were intended as modern warships capable of long-range operations. Nevertheless, the experience gained in the recent war with Spain had been limited.
Roosevelt’s stated intent was to give the navy practice in navigation, communication, coal consumption and fleet maneuvering; navy professionals maintained, however, that such matters could be served better in home waters. In light of what had happened to the Russian Baltic Fleet, they were concerned about sending their own fleet on a long deployment, especially since part of the intent was to impress a modern, battle-tested navy that had not known defeat. The fleet was untested in making such a voyage, and Tsushima had proven that extended deployments had no place in practical strategy. The Japanese navy was close to coaling and repair facilities; while American ships could coal in the Philippines, docking facilities were far from optimal. An extended stop on the West Coast of the United States during the voyage for overhaul and refurbishment in dry dock would be a necessity. Planning for the voyage, however, showed a dearth of adequate facilities there, as well. The main sea channel of the Mare Island Navy Yard near San Francisco was too shallow for battleships, which left only the Puget Sound Navy Yard in Bremerton, Washington for refit and repair. The Hunter’s Point civilian yard in San Francisco could accommodate capital ships but had been closed due to lack of use and was slated for demolition. President Roosevelt ordered that Hunter’s Point be reopened, facilities be brought up to date and the fleet to report there.
There was also the question of adequate resources for coaling. This was not an issue when the Atlantic Fleet cruised the Atlantic or Caribbean, as fuel supplies were readily available. However, the United States did not enjoy a worldwide network of coaling stations like that of Great Britain, nor did it have an adequate supply of auxiliary vessels for resupply. During the Spanish–American War, this lack had forced Admiral George Dewey to buy a collier-load of British coal in Hong Kong before the Battle of Manila Bay to ensure his squadron would not be stranded at sea. The need had been even more pressing for the Russian Baltic Fleet during its long deployment during the Russo-Japanese War, not just for the distance it was to sail but also because, as a belligerent nation in wartime, most neutral ports were closed to it due to international law. While the lack of support vessels was pointed out and a vigorous program of building such ships suggested by Rear Admiral George W. Melville, who had served as chief of the Bureau of Equipment, his words were not heeded adequately until World War II.
Federal regulations that restricted resupply vessels for Navy ships to those flying the United States flag, complicated by the lack of an adequate American merchant marine, proved another obstacle. Roosevelt initially offered to award Navy supply contracts to American skippers whose bids exceeded those of foreign captains by more than 50 percent. Many carriers declined this offer due to the fact that they could not obtain enough cargo to cover the cost of the return trip. Two months before the fleet sailed, Roosevelt ordered the Navy Department to contract 38 ships to supply the fleet with the 125,000 tons of coal it would need to steam from Hampton Roads, Virginia to San Francisco. Only eight of these were American-registered; most of the other 30 were of British registry. This development was potentially awkward, since part of the mission was to impress Japan with the perception of overwhelming American naval power. Britain had become a military ally of Japan in 1905, which obligated it to aid Japan should a foreign power declare war against it. Technically, the list of potential combatants included the United States. The British government decided to play both sides of the political fence with the intent of moderating any Japanese-American friction that might arise.
As the Panama Canal was not yet complete, the fleet had to pass through the Straits of Magellan. The scope of such an operation was unprecedented in U.S. history, as ships had to sail from all points of the compass to rendezvous points and proceed according to a carefully orchestrated, well-conceived plan. It involved almost the entire operational capability of the U.S. Navy. Unlike the formidable obstacles that had faced the Russian fleet[nb 1] on its voyage from the Baltic to the Pacific, which eventually led to its destruction by the Japanese in 1905, the U.S. effort benefited from a peaceful environment which aided the coordination of ship movements. The voyage itself eventually set a number of world records including sheer number of ships simultaneously circumnavigating the earth.[citation needed]
In port after port, citizens in the thousands turned out to see and greet the fleet. In 1908 the Great White Fleet visited Monterey, California, from 1–4 May. The nearby Hotel Del Monte in Del Monte, California hosted a grand ball for the officers of the fleet. Years later the Del Monte was taken over by the U.S. Navy in 1942 for use as the Del Monte Pre-Flight School for pilots and after World War II the Naval Postgraduate School was relocated there.
In Australia the arrival of the Great White Fleet on 20 August 1908 was used to encourage support for the forming of Australia’s own navy. When the fleet sailed into Yokohama, the Japanese went to extraordinary lengths to show that their country desired peace with the U.S.; thousands of Japanese schoolchildren waved American flags to greet navy officials as they came ashore.[citation needed] In Sicily, the sailors helped in recovery operations after the 1908 Messina earthquake.
In February 1909, Roosevelt was in Hampton Roads, Virginia, to witness the triumphant return of the fleet from its long voyage, and what he saw as a fitting finish for his administration. To the officers and men of the fleet Roosevelt said, “Other nations may do what you have done, but they’ll have to follow you.” This parting act of grand strategy by Roosevelt greatly expanded foreign respect for the United States, as well as its role in the international arena.[citation needed]
The fourteen-month-long voyage was a grand pageant of American seapower. The squadrons were manned by 14,000 sailors. They covered some 43,000 nautical miles (80,000 km) and made twenty port calls on six continents. The fleet was impressive, especially as a demonstration of American industrial prowess (all eighteen ships had been constructed since the Spanish–American War), but already the battleships represented the suddenly outdated ‘pre-dreadnought’ type of capital ship, as the first battleships of the revolutionary Dreadnought class had just entered service, and the U.S. Navy’s first dreadnought, South Carolina, was already fitting out. The two oldest ships in the fleet, Kearsarge and Kentucky, were already obsolete and unfit for battle; two others, Maine and Alabama, had to be detached at San Francisco, California because of mechanical troubles and were replaced by the Nebraska and the Wisconsin. (After repairs, Alabama and Maine completed their “own, more direct, circumnavigation of the globe” via Honolulu, Guam, Manila, Singapore, Colombo, Suez, Naples, Gibraltar, the Azores, and finally back to the United States, arriving on 20 October 1908, four months before the remainder of the fleet, which had taken a more circuitous route.)
The battleships were accompanied during the first leg of their voyage by a “Torpedo Flotilla” of six early destroyers, as well as by several auxiliary ships. The destroyers and their tender did not actually steam in company with the battleships, but followed their own itinerary from Hampton Roads, Virginia to San Francisco, California. Also of note is that the armored cruiser Washington preceded the Fleet itinerary for its first and second legs by about a month, perhaps making arrangements to later receive the Fleet.
With Connecticut as flagship under the command of Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, the fleet sailed from Hampton Roads on 16 December 1907 for Trinidad, British West Indies, thence to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Punta Arenas, Chile; Callao, Peru; Magdalena Bay, Mexico, and up the West Coast, arriving at San Francisco, 6 May 1908.
At San Francisco, Rear Admiral Charles S. Sperry assumed command of the fleet, owing to the poor health of Admiral Evans. Also at San Francisco, the squadrons were slightly rearranged, bringing the newest and best ships in the fleet up to the First Squadron. Glacier was detached and later became the supply ship of the Pacific Fleet. At this time also, Nebraska, under Captain Reginald F. Nicholson, and Wisconsin, under Captain Frank E. Beatty, were substituted for Maine and Alabama. In San Francisco, Minnesota was brought forward into First Squadron, First Division and Louisiana took her place as flagship, Second Squadron.
Leaving that port on 7 July 1908 the U.S. Atlantic Fleet visited Honolulu; Auckland, New Zealand; Sydney and Melbourne, Australia; Manila, Philippines; Yokohama, Japan; Colombo, Ceylon; arriving at Suez, Egypt, on 3 January 1909.
While the fleet was in Egypt, word was received of an earthquake in Sicily, thus affording an opportunity for the United States to show its friendship to Italy by offering aid to the sufferers. Connecticut, Illinois, Culgoa, and Yankton were dispatched to Messina, Italy at once. The crew of Illinois recovered the bodies of the American consul, Arthur S. Cheney and his wife, entombed in the ruins.
Scorpion, the Fleet’s station ship at Constantinople, and Celtic, a refrigerator ship fitted out in New York, were hurried to Messina, relieving Connecticut and Illinois, so that they could continue on the cruise.
Leaving Messina on 9 January 1909 the fleet stopped at Naples, Italy, thence to Gibraltar, arriving at Hampton Roads on 22 February 1909. There President Roosevelt reviewed the fleet as it passed into the roadstead.
From Hampton Roads to San Francisco, 14,556 nautical miles (26,958 km).
The Fleet, First Squadron and First Division, were commanded by Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans. First Division consisted of four ships of the 1906 Connecticut class: Connecticut, the fleet’s flagship, Captain Hugo Osterhaus, Kansas, Captain Charles E. Vreeland, Vermont, Captain William P. Potter, and Louisiana, Captain Richard Wainwright.
Second Division was commanded by Rear Admiral William H. Emory. Second Division consisted of four ships of the 1904 Virginia class: Georgia, the division flagship, Captain Henry McCrea, New Jersey, Captain William H. H. Southerland, Rhode Island, Captain Joseph B. Murdock, and Virginia, Captain Seaton Schroeder.
Second Squadron and Third Division were commanded by Rear Admiral Charles M. Thomas. Third Division consisted of one Connecticut-class ship and the three ships of the 1902 Maine class: Minnesota, the squadron flagship, Captain John Hubbard, Maine, Captain Giles B. Harber, Missouri, Captain Greenlief A. Merriam, and Ohio, Captain Charles W. Bartlett.
Fourth Division was commanded by Rear Admiral Charles S. Sperry. Fourth Division consisted of two ships of the 1901 Illinois class and the two 1900 Kearsarge-class ships: Alabama, the division flagship, Captain Ten Eyck De Witt Veeder, Illinois, Captain John M. Bowyer, Kearsarge, Captain Hamilton Hutchins, and Kentucky, Captain Walter C. Cowles.
The fleet auxiliaries consisted of Culgoa (a storeship), Lieutenant Commander John B. Patton, Glacier (a storeship), Commander William S. Hogg, Panther (a repair ship), Commander Valentine S. Nelson, Yankton (a tender), Lieutenant Walter R. Gherardi, and Relief (a hospital ship).
The “Torpedo Flotilla” of destroyers consisted of Hopkins, Lieutenant Alfred G. Howe, Stewart, Lieutenant Julius F. Hellweg, Hull, Lieutenant Frank McCommon, Truxton, Lieutenant Charles S. Kerrick, Lawrence, Lieutenant Ernest Friedrick, Whipple, Lieutenant Hutch I. Cone, and Arethusa (a tender), Commander Albert W. Grant.
The second leg of the voyage was from San Francisco to Puget Sound and back. On May 23, 1908 the 16-battleships of the Great White Fleet steamed into the Puget Sound where they separated to visit six Washington state ports: Bellingham, Bremerton, Port Angeles, Port Townsend, Seattle and Tacoma. The fleet arrived in Seattle on May 23 and departed May 27, 1908.
The Fleet, First Squadron, and First Division were commanded by Rear Admiral Charles S. Sperry. First Division consisted of Connecticut, the Fleet’s flagship, Captain Hugo Osterhaus Kansas, Captain Charles E. Vreeland Minnesota, Captain John Hubbard Vermont, Captain William P. Potter.
Second Division was commanded by Rear Admiral Richard Wainwright. Second Division consisted of Georgia, the Division flagship, Captain Edward F. Qualtrough, Nebraska, Captain Reginald F. Nicholson, replacing her sister Virginia, New Jersey, Captain William H.H. Southerland, and Rhode Island, Captain Joseph B. Murdock.
Second Squadron and Third Division were commanded by Rear Admiral William H. Emory. Third Division consisted of Louisiana, the Squadron’s flagship, Captain Kossuth Niles, Virginia, Captain Alexander Sharp, Missouri, Captain Robert M. Doyle, and Ohio, Captain Thomas B. Howard.
Fourth Division was commanded by Rear Admiral Seaton Schroeder. Fourth Division consisted of Wisconsin, the Division flagship, Captain Frank E. Beatty, which replaced her sister Alabama, Illinois, Captain John M. Bowyer, Kearsarge, Captain Hamilton Hutchins, and Kentucky, Captain Walter C. Cowles.
The Fleet Auxiliaries were Culgoa (a storeship), Lieutenant Commander John B. Patton, Yankton (a tender), Lieutenant Commander Charles B. McVay, Glacier (a storeship), Commander William S. Hogg, Relief (a hospital ship), Surgeon Charles F. Stokes, and Panther (a repair ship), Commander Valentine S. Nelson.
From San Francisco to Manila, 16,336 nautical miles (30,254 km).
The Fleet, First Squadron, and First Division were commanded by Rear Admiral Charles S. Sperry. First Division consisted of Connecticut, the Fleet’s flagship, Captain Hugo Osterhaus, Kansas, Captain Charles E. Vreeland, Minnesota, Captain John Hubbard, and Vermont, Captain William P. Potter.
Second Division consisted of Georgia, the Division flagship, Captain Edward F. Qualtrough, Nebraska, Captain Reginald F. Nicholson, New Jersey, Captain William H.H. Southerland, and Rhode Island, Captain Joseph B. Murdock.
The Second Squadron and Third Division were commanded by Rear Admiral William H. Emory. Third Division consisted of Louisiana, the Squadron flagship, Captain Kossuth Niles, Virginia, Captain Alexander Sharp, Missouri, Captain Robert M. Doyle, and Ohio, Captain Thomas B. Howard.
Fourth Division was commanded by Rear Admiral Seaton Schroeder. Fourth Division consisted of Wisconsin, the Division flagship, Captain Frank E. Beatty, Illinois, Captain John M. Bowyer, Kearsarge, Captain Hamilton Hutchins, and Kentucky, Captain Walter C. Cowles.
The Fleet Auxiliaries were Culgoa (a storeship), Lieutenant Commander John B. Patton, Yankton (a tender), Lieutenant Commander Charles B. McVay, Glacier (a storeship), Commander William S. Hogg, Relief (a hospital ship), Surgeon Charles F. Stokes, and Panther (a repair ship), Commander Valentine S. Nelson.
The final leg ran from Manila to Hampton Roads, 12,455 nautical miles (23,067 km).
The cruise of the Great White Fleet provided practical experience for US naval personnel in sea duty and ship handling. It also showed the viability of US warships for long-range operations as no major mechanical mishaps occurred. However, while the cruise uncovered design flaws, it did not test the abilities to engage in battle fleet action. In fact, the success of the deployment might have helped obscure design deficiencies that were not addressed until World War I. These included excessive draft, low armor belts, large turret openings and exposed ammunition hoists.
While the capital ships of the Great White Fleet were already obsolescent in light of the “big gun” revolution ushered in by the construction of HMS Dreadnought, their behavior at sea furnished valuable information that affected future construction. For instance, in terms of seaworthiness, all the capital ships in the fleet proved wet in all but the calmest seas, which led to the flared bows of subsequent U.S. battleships, increased freeboard forward and such spray-reducing measures as the elimination of bill-boards for anchors and gun sponsons. Increased freeboard was needed; this and related considerations demanded increases in beam and overall size. Between the Florida-class battleships, the last American capital ships completed before data from the cruise became available, and the Wyoming class, the first designed after this data was received, displacement (and, as a result, cost) per ship increased by one third.
Deficiencies in seaworthiness in turn reduced the battle-worthiness of the fleet. Turret heights for main armament proved too low and needed to be raised. Secondary armament was useless at speed and especially in trade-wind conditions (with the wind moving over the sea at 10 knots (19 km/h) or greater) and needed to be moved much higher in the hull. Improved placement began with the Wyoming-class battleships and was further refined in the Nevada class. Casemates for the bow 3-inch guns in the newer pre-dreadnoughts were untenable due to wetness and were removed. Another discovery was that, even when fully loaded, the bottom of the battleships’ side armor was visible—and the ships thus vulnerable to shells that might hit beneath it to reach their machinery and magazines—in smooth to moderate seas. The profile of crests and troughs in some ships contributed to this problem. Admiral Evans concluded that the standard 8-foot (2.4 m) width of belt armor to be inadequate.
One other necessity the cruise outlined was the need for tactical homogeneity. Before the cruise, critics such as then-Captain William Sims (to whom President Roosevelt listened) had argued that American warship design had remained too conservative and precluded the level of efficiency needed for the fleet to function as an effective unit. The cruise proved the charge true. This would eventually lead to the building of standard type battleships in the U.S. Navy. When President Roosevelt convened the 1908 Newport Conference of the Naval War College, he placed responsibility for U.S. battleship design on the General Board of the United States Navy. This gave line officers and planners direct input and control over warship design, a pattern which has persisted to the present day.
Experience gained by the cruise led to improvements in formation steaming, coal economy and morale. Gunnery exercises doubled the fleet’s accuracy. However, the mission also underlined the fleet’s dependence on foreign colliers and the need for coaling stations and auxiliary ships for coaling and resupply.